“The quantitative measures used to assess research output i.e. publication and citation data analysis” (MyRI).
The impact of a particular work may be assessed by the number of times it is cited by other works and alternative metrics such as downloads and social media buzz.
A researcher's publication impact is often assessed by the number of works they publish and the number of times their works are cited.
Academic journals are assessed by the number of times their articles are cited and where they are cited.
Bibliometrics and altmetrics are important, but controversial. DORA (the Declaration of Research Assessment) is both a petition and declaration which recognizes the need to improve the way research is assessed using bibliometrics, pointing out the flaws in relying on journal metrics.
Evaluators need to be aware of the tools and their scope, use multiple tools and approaches, and be tranparent when calculating results.
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The authors would like to thank Emory University Libraries, the University of Oxford-Radcliffe Science Library, University of Maryland Libraries, Harvard University Library, and Cornell University Library for allowing us to adapt material from their libguides.