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Veterans, Military and Family Health

An interprofessional guide to the evidence-based resources addressing the unique health care needs of veterans, military persons and their families.

TBI Search Topics

For medical research regarding Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), search the following terms:

TBI Provider Learning Course

The Veterans Health Initiative (2010) released a comprehensive online independent study course specific to military-affiliated TBI for primary care providers.

TBI Apps

  • Brainline Military: Six Free Military Smartphone Apps that help with issues ranging from stress and mood management to tools to help improve quality of care for people with mild traumatic brain injury.

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Basics

  • Labeled as " of the invisible wounds of war", traumatic brain injury is challenging to diagnose and treat (U.S. Dept. of Defense, 2014, para. 1).
  • TBI is defined as:  an injury to the brain caused by an external force, such as blunt force, a jolt, or penetrating trauma (CDC, 2014; Mayo Clinic, 2014)
  • U.S. Department of Defense (2014) most current incidence reports of TBI in 2012 are classified into the following categories based on severity:  nearly 24,000 individuals with mild TBI; around 4,000 individuals with moderate TBI; and nearly 3,000 individuals with an unclassified severity of TBI.
  • The evolution of modern warfare has resulted in complex blast-related brain injuries, which leads to a number of complications including but not limited to "...vestibular, auditory, visual, and communicative disorder" (Cifu, et al., 2010, pp. 690). 
  • Aside from the trauma itself, "TBI produces a complex constellation of medical consequences including physical, emotional, behavioral, and cognitive" issues (Vanderploeg, et al., 2010, pp. 1).

Government Resources

Additional Resources


1.     Adams, R.A., Larson, M.J., Corrigan, J.D., Horgan, C.M., & Williams, T.V. (2012). Frequent binge drinking after combat-acquired traumatic brain injury among active duty military personnel with a past year combat deployment. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 27(5), p. 349-360.

2.     Bagalman, E. (2015). Health care for veterans:  Traumatic brain injury. Congressional Research Service (CRS) Report for Congress. Retrieved from

3.     Bailie, J.M., Cole, W.R., Ivins, B., Boyd, C., Lewis, S., Neff, J., & Schwab, K. (2014). The experience, expression, and control of anger following traumatic brain injury in a military sample. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation. Retrieved from

4.     Benedict, S.M., Belanger, H.G., Ceperich, S.D., Cifu, D.X., Cornis-Pop, M., Lew, H.L.,…& Walker, W.C. (2010). Traumatic Brain Injury:  Independent Study Course. The Department of Veterans Affairs Website. Retrieved from

5.     Brickell, T.A., Lange, R.T., & French, L.M. (2014). Three-year outcome following moderate-to-severe TBI in U.S. military service members:  A descriptive cross-sectional study. Military Medicine, 179(8), p. 839-848.

6.     Brickell, T.A., Lange, R.T., & French, L.M. (2014). Health-related quality of life within the first 5 years following military-related concurrent mild traumatic brain injury and polytrauma. Military Medicine, 179(8), p. 827-838.

7.     Bryan, C.J., Clemans, T.A., Hernandez, A.M., & Rudd, M.D. (2013). Loss of consciousness, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and suicide risk among deployed military personnel with mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 28(1), p. 13-20.

8.     CDC. (2014). Injury prevention & control:  Traumatic brain injury. CDC website. Retrieved from

9.     Cernich, A.N., Chandler, L., Scherdell, T., & Kurtz, S. (2012). Assessment of co-occurring disorders in veterans diagnosed with traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 27(4), p. 253-260.

10.  Cifu, D.X., Cohen, S.I., Lew, H.L., Jaffee, M., & Sigford, B. (2010). The history and evolution of traumatic brain injury rehabilitation in military service members and veterans. American Journal of Physical Medicine Rehabilitation, 89, pp. 688-694.

11.  CNN. (2014). The VA’s troubled history. CNN website. Retrieved from

12.  Department of Veterans Affairs. (2014). VA announces modification of patient-centered community care (PCCC) contracts:  Contracts provide primary care access. News Release. Retrieved from

13.  Finley, E.P., Zeber, J.E., Pugh, M.V., Cantu, G., Copeland, L.A., Parchman, M.L., & Noel, P.H. (2010). Postdeployment health care for returning OEF/OIF military

personnel and their social networks:  A qualitative approach. Military Medicine,

175(12), 953-956.

14.  Gellis, L.A., Gehrman, P.R., Mavandadi, S., & Oslin, D.W. (2010). Predictors of sleep disturbances in Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom veterans reporting a trauma. Military Medicine, 175(8), p. 576-572.

15.  Gubata, M.E., Packnett, E.R., Blandford, C.D., Piccirillo, A.L., Niebuhr, D.W., & Cowan, D.N. (2014). Trends in the epidemiology of disability related to traumatic brain injury in the US Army and Marine Corps:  2005 to 2010. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 29(1), p. 65-75.

16.  Hesdorffer, D.C., Rauch, S.L., & Tamminga, C.A. (2009). Long-term psychiatric outcomes following traumatic brain injury:  A review of the literature. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 24(6), p. 452-459.

17.  Hyatt, K., Davis, L.L., & Barroso, J. (2014). Chasing the care:  Soldiers experience following combat-related mild traumatic brain injury. Military Medicine, 179(8), p. 849-855.

18.  Iverson, G.L. (2010). Clinical and methodological challenges with assessing mild traumatic brain injury in the military. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 25(5), p. 313-319.

19.  Mayo Clinic. (2014). Diseases and conditions:  Traumatic brain injury. Mayo Clinic website. Retrieved from

20.  Nassif, T.H., Norris, D.O., Soltes, K.L., Blackman, M.R., Chapman, J.C., & Sandbrink, F. (2013). Evaluating the effectiveness of mindfulness meditation for chronic musculoskeletal pain in U.S. veterans using the Defense and Veterans Pain Rating Scale (DVPRS) (Doctoral dissertation). College of Arts and Sciences of American University, Washington D.C.

21.  Queensland Occupational Therapy Fieldwork Collaborative (QOTFC). (2007). Adult learning theory and principles. QOTFC website:  The Clinical Educator’s Resource. Retrieved from

22.  Stevens, K.R. (2012). ACE star model of EBP:  Knowledge transformation. University of Texas San Antonio School of Nursing Academic Center for Evidence-based Practice website. Retrieved from

23.  Temkin, N.R., Corrigan, J.D., Dikmen, S.S., & Machamer, J. (2009). Social functioning after traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 24(6), p. 460-467.

24.  U.S. Dept. of Defense. (2014). Traumatic brain injury:  Department of Defense special report. US DOD website. Retrieved from

25.  U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. (2014). Data and statistics:  Veteran population. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs website. Retrieved from

26.  Uomoto, J.M. (2012). Best practices in veteran traumatic brain injury care. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 27(4), p. 241-243.

27.  Vanderploeg, R.D. (2010). Traumatic brain injury. Veterans Health Initiative, p. 1-167.

28.  Wall, P.L. (2012). Posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury in the current military population:  A critical analysis. Journal of American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 18(5), p. 278-298.

29.  The White House. (2014). The administration:  Joining forces. The White House website. Retrieved from

30.  Zollman, F.S., Starr, C., Kondiles, B., Cyborski, C., & Larson, E.B. (2014). The Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago military traumatic brain injury screening instrument:  Determination of sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 29(1), p. 99-107.